History

 

Downtown and Lower Duwamish River

dzee-dzee-LAH-letch was the most important village on what is now called Elliott Bay, with some 200 people c. 1800. Chief Seattle lived here for some time. The village had eight large khwaac’ál’al (longhouses)—each 60 feet by 120 feet (18 m x 37 m)—plus a large potlatch house, where people from all over the area gathered. dzee-dzee-LAH-letch (“little crossing-over place”) was located near the trail: appropriately, where the King Street Station was later built. Before the extensive tidelands were filled in, there was a spit here, separating Elliott Bay from a lagoon known for flounder.

tohl-AHL-too (“herring house“) and later hah-AH-poos (“where there are horse clams”) was on the west bank of the Duwamish River near its former estuarial mouth on Elliott Bay, located around what is now south Harbor Island. This was the original village site that had been inhabited since the 6th century (see also Duwamish tribe#History). It was abandoned sometime before 1800, but there elders reported that the village had seven (60 ft by 120 ft (37 m), 18 m x 37 m) longhouses plus a large (60 ft by 360 ft (110 m), 18 m x 110 m) potlatch house. At the successor village nearby there were three longhouses occupied by 75-100 people.

The Duwamish was a bountiful estuary, a powerful meandering river with extensive tidal flats and wildlife, when pioneer John Pike officially bought the land from the U.S. government in 1860, soon after the Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855. Local shipyards built fishing boats for European immigrants until the resource diminished. The site was being cleared of buildings to construct a marine terminal when archaeological discoveries in 1977 halted further development. This site is in what is now known as Herring House Park (Herring’s House Park), just north of Terminal 107 (map ). The site overlooks Kellogg Island and a natural channel of the river. The 17-acre (69,000 m2) park contains a natural intertidal basin at the shoreline and areas of marsh, meadow and forest in the upland portion. In season, the park has hundreds of juvenile fish, and migrating salmon which attract harbor seals, ospreys, and bald eagles and provide habitat for cormorants, great blue herons, purple martins and other native waterfowl. Overlooking the park is the site of the planned Duwamish Tribe cultural center (above). Above the contemporary Duwamish Center is the restored and partially daylighted watershed of to-AH-wee (trout), now called Longfellow Creek, just over the ridge that is now called Delridge. Puget Creek was the freshwater resource (and a fishery, in season) for the village. Much of Puget Park is now a natural area, along with others nearby. Eventually, with ongoing volunteer effort, the surroundings will have restored areas and views.

too-PAHLH-tehb was at the mouth of the easternmost estuary of the Duwamish River, approximately 1st Avenue at Spokane Street.

yee-LEH-khood (“basket cap” like those worn by the Yakama people) was a particularly long-established village on the then-west bank of a bend in the Duwamish River, in what is now Terminal 107 Park, the higher ground of the Port of Seattle terminal.

The kehl-kah-KWEH-yah (“Proud People”) had their village at too-KWHEHL-teed (“a large open space”) farther upstream at a former bend of the Duwamish, in what is now south Georgetown. The large open space was likely artificially maintained.

Read more about this topic:  History Of Seattle Before White Settlement

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I just love a park that’s called Herring’s House. I guess it calls to my Scandinavian heritage.

It also speaks to the heritage of the Duwamish people who once lived on this site. “Tohl-ahl-too” is the word for “Herring House” for the Duwamish.

Archaeologists think people have been living in this spot for at least 1,400 years and probably lived off salmon and other fish they caught in the river, which was a much rougher waterway in the past.

This area has some interesting history, and the land’s uses have changed dramatically over the past 150 years. In the late 1800s it was built up with small homes, and then squatter shacks appeared.

The northern end was the site of one of Seattle’s first lumber mills, Seabord Lumber, in the 1920s. The southern part was a brick factory. It was also an area of illegal activity. During Prohibition, people would sell booze from their houseboats just offshore on the Duwamish.

In 2000 an effort began to totally restore this spot, and today the result is a wonderful waterfront park with great wildlife viewing. Bald eagles are regularly spotted nearby. Osprey like to nest in the foliage. Restored intertidal habitats are slowly allowing for fish species to return, although fishing of many species is still strongly not recommended.

Although it feels like one park, the city actually owns the northern part of this waterfront stretch. A trail connects to the Port of Seattle’s Terminal 107 Path. Take a slow loop through these parks to catch all its great aspects or enjoy your lunch at one of several picnic tables. Don’t miss the large wooden schooner, a model of early 1900s Seattle fishing boats, that’s displayed overhead near one of the entrances.

People For Puget Sound deserves credit for this spot’s dramatic return to a more natural state.

#150 & 151 (Visited 4/8/10)

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…here an abundance of herring spawned where salt water meets fresh water. Duwamish peoples lived on the tideflats and uplifted terraces along the river for more than 2,000 years.

Herring’s House was the site of a longhouse that may date from 500 A.D. Along the Duwamish there were three long houses for winter use as well as camps with woven mats attached to a pole frame for spring, summer, and fall use. More than 100 Duwamish were camping here at the end of 1856 when American settlers were moving in.

Despite their essential role in the founding of Seattle, the Duwamish did not receive a reservation of their own in the Treaty of Point Elliott, which Chief Seattle signed in 1855. By 1865, the City of Seattle formally banned the Duwamish from living within the city limits; they were restricted to camps at the mouth of the Duwamish. A longhouse was burned along the west side of the river in 1893 when land developers were platting new additions to what became West Seattle. The remaining Duwamish dispersed throughout the city or eked out a subsistence on the river’s banks for a few years (see Coll Thrush, Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place).

Outline of a schooner at T-107 Park to note the history of shipbuilding

Herring’s House connects to T-107 Park. In the 1970s when the Port of Seattle had already razed the community of Hersalora and was ready to build a new terminal, Duwamish chairperson Cecile Hansen called attention to the history of Duwamish villages, and work stopped. The park that would have been a terminal now features signage that interprets four layers of history—geologic, Native American, immigrant, and shipbuilding. The park sits on a channel of the river, the only remaining natural bend in the waterway, across from Kellogg Island, a much reduced version of Tsuh’-Kash, known for obvious reasons as the muddy island. Across the street is the Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center at 4705 W Marginal Way, which the Duwamish built on purchased land.

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Sdzidzilalitch (Little Crossing-Over Place)

Coast Salish communities on Puget Sound located villages in places that offered access to resources they could use or trade. On the Elliott Bay waterfront at what is now the foot of Seattle’s Yesler Way, the ancestors of today’s Duwamish, Suquamish, and Muckleshoot tribal members chose a space they called Sdzidzilalitch, which can be translated as Little Crossing-Over Place. It was adjacent to a flounder fishery, shellfish beds, salmon fishing grounds, places to gather plant resources, and a source of freshwater. It was also a centrally located place where people could gather to socialize, make alliances, trade, and share traditional knowledge. Though the longhouses had been abandoned by 1852, when the Denny Party, Seattle’s founding settlers, claimed the land, the Indians continued to gather in the area and it remains important to the tribes today.

By the time anthropologists and historians began to look for traces of Sdzidzilalitch in the twentieth century, the longhouses at the site had long since been removed and the area had been regraded and filled to such an extent that the original landscape had disappeared. Old maps showed a point of land (named Piner’s Point by early explorers), which was regularly cut off from the mainland by high tide, extending south from the area of today’s First Avenue and Yesler Way. On the inland side, the maps showed a lagoon or saltwater marsh extending in to where Jackson Street is today, in the area of the train stations at 4th Avenue. The shoreline then ran south along the base of Beacon Hill and curved around to the mouth of the Duwamish River on the south side of the bay.

Just north of the island, where the land began to rise, the Duwamish built a winter village of about eight longhouses. According to historian David Buerge, the longhouses were about 60 feet by 120 feet and the village would have had a population of about 200 people. One account identifies one of the structures as a “dance house” used for ceremonial gatherings.

The People of Sdzidzilalitch

Not very much is known about the people who built and lived in the village because it was abandoned by the time non-Indian settlers came to Elliott Bay in the 1850s, a time of tremendous change and upheaval in the Indian community. It is likely that the village was abandoned because epidemics of European diseases, to which the inhabitants had no immunity, had reduced the local population significantly and the survivors had gathered at inland villages along the Duwamish and Black rivers.

Sdzidzilalitch is primarily identified as a Duwamish village because that name has been used to identify the people living in the Seattle and Renton region. Though non-Indian settlers, and particularly the territorial government, identified the Duwamish as a tribe that included people living on Lake Washington, the Cedar, Black, and Duwamish rivers, and Elliott Bay, it is more accurate to describe those Indian communities as autonomous bands who shared language, customs, and social relations with other nearby bands, often living in the same watershed. The Duwamish primarily lived along the Duwamish, Black, and Cedar rivers. These rivers once formed a single drainage, but the opening of the Montlake Cut in 1916 caused the level of Lake Washington to drop about nine feet and the Black River, which formerly drained the lake, dried up, and the ship canal became the lake’s outlet.

People living on the western side of Lake Washington, sometimes called the Lakes Duwamish, and those living on Elliott Bay were also included in the Duwamish tribe by early settlers and Indian agents. This grouping of autonomous bands was further formalized by the treaty process. The desire of territorial government officials to work with leaders of large groups, rather than with each band, led them to impose a different hierarchy and type of relationship, such as the concept of a chief with control over numerous bands, than what actually existed among the Duwamish or other Coast Salish people.

It is also likely that both the Suquamish from across Puget Sound and the groups from farther up the valleys of the White and Green rivers that today make up the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe also gathered at Sdzidzilalitch. They had close relations with the Duwamish and would have fished at locations around Elliott Bay.

A Crossing-Over Place

The area around Sdzidzilalitch had a number of characteristics that made it a good village site. For a people who relied on canoes to travel, the bay offered excellent conditions. The headlands on the north and southeast sides tempered the wind and waves. The beach sloped fairly quickly to open water, allowing for easy landing and launching.

The historical record also indicates that two trails led inland from Sdzidzilalitch (the likely source of the name “Little Crossing-Over Place”). One trail crossed over the low ground between the point and the mainland to the lagoon. The Duwamish and others fished for flounder in the lagoon. The other traversed the hills between the bay and Lake Washington, which provided a route between Elliott Bay and the Cascade foothills. Travelers paddled through the slough connecting Lake Washington with Lake Sammamish. (The slough has since straightened and is known as the Sammamish River.) From Lake Sammamish they could travel on foot up into the mountains to hunt game, gather berries, or socialize and trade with Indians from both sides of the Cascades.

On Elliott Bay, Sdzidzilalitch was just one of several documented places of importance to the Duwamish. To the north, there were village sites at Smith Cove, on Elliott Bay north of what became downtown Seattle, and at West Point where Discovery Park was later located. In the area of today’s Belltown neighborhood, there was a camp site, a burial ground, and a trail over the shoulder of the large hill, known to non-Indian settlers as Denny Hill, that has since been leveled. That trail led to the south end of Lake Union. That lake was another route to the interior, via Swatsugwithl (“Carry a Canoe”), known to the non-Indian settlers as the Montlake Portage, in the area of today’s Montlake Cut. There was also a place along the shore, below Belltown, known as Tuqap (“Aerial Duck Net”), where the Duwamish raised nets to catch ducks and other waterfowl as they flew between the bay and Lake Union. (It should be noted that for technical reasons, the spelling of “Sdzidzilalitch” and other Coast Salish names has been modified in this essay by omission of specialized characters usually used in spelling those names.)

Additional burial grounds were located where downtown Seattle is today. Each of them were covered over or dug up during the massive regrading of the hillside streets undertaken in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by the city’s Engineering Department.

Rich in Resources

At Sdzidzilalitch and a number of other places on the hills around the bay, springs gurgled out of the ground and formed creeks. This is where we get the name for Spring Street. The springs provided drinking water; the one at Sdzidzilalitch supplied the first water system in Seattle, built by Henry Yesler (1810-1892) using wooden flumes.

On the south end of the bay the mouth of the Duwamish River created an enormous estuary. More than 2,000 acres of tidelands, since filled, teemed with shellfish, fish, and other marine life. Salmon-fishing stations located at Duwamish Head (the northern tip of what is now West Seattle) and in river channels that meandered across the flats took advantage of magnificent runs of salmon. A winter village called Tu’ul’altxw, or Herring’s House, sat on the western bank of the river mouth. Another called Yuliqwad, or Basketry Hat, was further upstream, where Herring’s House Park is today. Sites for gathering foods like horsetail, waterfowl, or smelt dotted the nearby shoreline and the riverbanks.

In addition to providing food and materials for household goods, these resources supplied a complex trade network that Coast Salish people participated in. Extending north to Alaska, south to California, and east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Southwest, the network enriched the diet and technology of the people who lived on Elliott Bay. Oglala Lakota scholar Vine Deloria Jr. described the nature of the trade: “Because the food and other trade items were so plentiful, people had to become specialists in order to produce goods for trade. One could not simply smoke salmon because everyone did. Rather, the different villages had to develop specialty items that would be coveted by other tribes in order to participate in the trade” (Deloria, 10). The items produced by Puget Sound Indians included dried clams; seal, whale, and dogfish oils; crabs; camas roots; berries; and salmon. When the British Hudson’s Bay Company established a post at Nisqually, the Coast Salish incorporated the fur traders into their trade network, exchanging local products for manufactured goods. Likewise, when non-Indian settlers came to Elliott Bay, they too became trading partners.

In addition to the resources offered by the land and sea, Sdzidzilalitch was a place where people came together. In the winter, an important time for ceremonial activities, people also traded, socialized, made political alliances, and shared traditional knowledge. They also competed with each other in canoe races and sla-hal, or stick game.

Change and Persistence

It was not long after non-Indian settlers claimed the land at the site of Sdzidzilalitch, in 1852, that Indians were no longer welcome there. In the Treaty of Point Elliott, signed at Mukilteo in 1855, the Duwamish, the Suquamish, and the tribes that would become the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, ceded the majority of their land in exchange for payments and services. Though the tribes were expected to go to the reservation established at Port Madison on the west shore of Puget Sound, or, later, to the Muckleshoot reservation in what is now south King County, many of the Duwamish continued to live independently around the region. Some Indian women married non-Indian men and settled in towns.

The non-Indian settlers at Seattle, who named their new town for a Duwamish and Suquamish leader (whose name has also been rendered in English as “Sealth,” “Se’ahl,” and “Seeathl,” among other approximations) needed Indians to trade food items with them, provide transportation in their canoes, and work at Yesler’s mill, the economic backbone of the settlement.

This interdependence did not translate into a desire to integrate the two cultures. The new city council officially prohibited Indian residences within the city limits in an 1865 ordinance (though that law was not reinstated when Seattle incorporated a second time in 1869). As the town grew, Indians were relegated to other areas around Elliot Bay, and, as undeveloped areas along the shoreline shrank, they were tolerated on Ballast Island at the foot of Washington and Main streets, just a block or two from the site of Sdzidzilalitch. There are a number of accounts and photographs of Indians camped on the small bit of land, dubbed Ballast Island, created by ballast dumped from ships coming to Elliott Bay to load lumber destined for ports around the Pacific Rim.

Members of Puget Sound and visiting British Columbia tribes held gatherings with feasts and familiar activities such as canoe races and smoking salmon at Ballast Island. Local businesses welcomed their trade. With their earnings from working in sawmills and canneries, and from picking hops in the White and Green river valleys, they were early customers of banks and stores. They also traded baskets and other items for sale in stores such as the Golden Rule Bazaar. They maintained their presence on Ballast Island until the 1890s, when it was covered over by pier and trestle expansions.

Most places on Elliott Bay that were significant to the Indians who lived there would be burned or, like Sdzidzilalitch, covered over by regrades, buildings, railroads, and streets in the 1890s and early 1900s. Additionally, the Duwamish River was straightened and the tideflats filled in the early twentieth century. Nonetheless, these places remain important to the Duwamish, Suquamish, and Muckleshoot today, as they are to other area tribes such as the Snoqualmie and Tulalip who also have a history on the bay. Members of these tribes tell the stories related to various sites and return to many of the places regularly. The Duwamish Tribe has built a longhouse and cultural center adjacent to the former site of Yulíqwad (Basketry Hat). In 2014, tribal members continue to fish on Elliott Bay and in the Duwamish River and the tribes are actively involved in rehabilitating the environment and helping shape the future of Seattle’s central waterfront, including the former location of Sdzidzilalitch, as it undergoes another transformation of purpose and meaning with the planned replacement of the Alaskan Way Viaduct.

Sources:
Mildred Andrews, “A Change of Worlds,” in Pioneer Square: Seattle’s Oldest Neighborhood ed. by Mildred Tanner Andrews (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005), 7-24; Vine Deloria Jr., Indians of the Pacific Northwest: From the Coming of the White Man to the Present Day (Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2012); Paul Dorpat, “Ballast Island: Imported Native Land,” The Seattle Times, April 24, 1983, magazine pp. 38-39; Lucile McDonald, “Good Old Days of the Golden Rule Bazaar,” The Seattle Times, April 11, 1965, magazine p. 2; Coll Thrush, Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2009); T. T. Waterman, Notes on the Ethnography of the Indians of Puget Sound (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1973); T. T. Waterman (edited with additional material from Vi Hilbert, Jay Miller, and Zalmai Zahir), Puget Sound Geography (Federal Way: Lushootseed Press, 2001); Findings of Fact, The Duwamish Tribe of Indians v. United States of America, Docket 109, Indian Claims Commission Decision, March 25, 1957, copy available at Oklahoma State University Libraries website accessed September 19, 2014 (http://digital.library.okstate.edu/icc/v05/iccv05p117.pdf); “Historical Technical Report,” prepared by the Duwamish Tribal Organization, in “Summary Under the Criteria and Evidence for Proposed Finding Against Acknowledgement of the Duwamish Tribal Organization,” June 18, 1996, pp. 28-102, copy available at Bureau of Indian Affairs website accessed September 19, 2014 (http://www.bia.gov/cs/groups/xofa/documents/text/idc-001381.pdf); “Ordinances of the Town of Seattle,” Seattle Weekly Gazette, March 4, 1865, p. 1; “SR 99: Alaskan Way Viaduct & Seawall Replacement Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix M: Archaeological Resources and Traditional Cultural Places Technical Memorandum, March 2004,” Washington State Department of Transportation website accessed September 19, 2014 (http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/projects/viaduct/Media/Default/Documents/Environmental/ DEISAppendixMArchaeologicalResources.pdf). Special thanks to Coll Thrush.


Indian canoes nearing Ballast Island, Seattle waterfront near Washington Street, ca. 1892
Photo by Boyd & Braas, Courtesy MOHAI (Image No. shs5118

Duwamish Westcoast Canoe with traditional longhouse in background, Cedar River, 1893
Courtesy University of Oregon Special Collections

Brochure for the Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center, January 2009
Courtesy the Duwamish Tribe
Duwamish Longhouse, Seattle, January 2009
HistoryLink.org Photo by Peter Blecha

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